Помощничек
Главная | Обратная связь


Археология
Архитектура
Астрономия
Аудит
Биология
Ботаника
Бухгалтерский учёт
Войное дело
Генетика
География
Геология
Дизайн
Искусство
История
Кино
Кулинария
Культура
Литература
Математика
Медицина
Металлургия
Мифология
Музыка
Психология
Религия
Спорт
Строительство
Техника
Транспорт
Туризм
Усадьба
Физика
Фотография
Химия
Экология
Электричество
Электроника
Энергетика

Утопия и минимальное государство



Описанная нами рамка для утопии эквивалентна минимальному государству. В этой главе аргументация начинается (и завершается) вне зависимости от логики частей I и II и приходит к тому же самому результату, к минимальному государству, с другого направления. В этой главе мы не рассматривали рамку как нечто большее, чем минимальное государство, но мы не делали попыток опереться непосредственно на предшествующее обсуждение защитных агентств. (Это потому, что мы хотели, чтобы две независимых линии аргументации сошлись.) Нам не нужно объединять тему этой части с рассмотренным ранее вопросом о доминирующих охранных агентствах; хотелось бы только отметить, что вне зависимости от того, к каким заключениям относительно роли центральной власти (контроля над ней и т.п.) приходят люди, именно эти заключения будут определять (внутреннюю) форму и структуру охранных агентств, клиентами которых они решат стать.

В части I мы доказали, что минимальное государство является морально легитимным; в части II мы доказали, что никакое государство с более широкими полномочиями не может быть морально оправданно, что любое более могущественное государство нарушало бы (будет нарушать) права индивидов. Предпочтительное в моральном отношении государство, единственное морально легитимное государство, единственное морально приемлемое государство является, как мы теперь понимаем, тем самым государством, которое наилучшим образом реализует утопические стремления бесчисленных мечтателей и провидцев. Оно сохраняет то, что все мы можем взять от утопической традиции, и открывает все остальное, что есть в этой традиции, для наших личных стремлений. Вспомните вопрос, с которого начиналась эта глава. Не является ли минимальное государство, рамка для утопии, воодушевляющим видением?

Минимальное государство обращается с нами как с неприкос -новенными индивидами, которых другие люди не могут использовать в качестве инструмента, средства или ресурса; оно обращается с нами с почтением, которого мы заслуживаем как обладатели индивидуальных прав. Уважая наши права и тем самым обращаясь с нами с уважением, оно позволяет нам — по отдельности или вместе с теми, кого мы выберем, — выбирать свою жизнь и реа-лизовывать свои цели и представления о себе в той мере, в какой мы на это способны, опираясь на добровольное сотрудничество других индивидов, обладающих тем же достоинством. Как смеет государство или группа индивидов делать больше? Или меньше.

 

[Форматирование и/или сканирование: Марс Рахманов. «Перерождение ради процветания. Жить полноценно». 2008 г. http://marsexxx.com]

Библиография

Alchian. Armen. "Uncertainty, Evolution, and Economic Theory." Journal of Political Economy 58 (1950):211—221.

Alchian, Armen and Allen, W. A. University Economics, 2nd ed. Belmont, Cal.: Wadsworth, 1971.

Alchian, Armen and Dcmsetz, Harold. "Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization." American Economic Review 62 (1972):777—795.

American Law Institute. Conflict of Laws; Second Restatement of the Law, Proposed Official Draft, 1967—1969.

Arrow, Kenneth. "Economic Equilibrium." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 4. New York: Macmillan, 1968, 376—89.

Arrow, Kenneth. Essays on the Theory of Risk-Bearing, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1970.

Arrow, Kenneth and Hahn, Frank. General Competitive Analysis. San Francisco: Holden-Day, 1971.

Arrow, Kenneth and Hurwicz, Leonid. "An Optimality Criterion for Decision-Making under Ignorance." In С F. Carter and J. L. Ford, eds., Uncertainty and Expectation in Economics. Clifton, N.J.: Augustus Kelley. 1972.

Ashcroft, Richard. "Locke's State of Nature." American Political Science Review 62, no. 3 (September 1968):898—915.

Aumann, Robert. "Markets with a Continuum of Traders." Econometrica 32 (1964):39—50.

Barkai, Haim. "The Kibbutz: An Experiment in Micro-Socialism." In Irving Howe and Carl Gershman, eds., Israel, the Arabs, and the Middle East. New York: Bantam Books, 1972.

Bedau, Hugo. "Civil Disobedience and Personal Responsibility for Injustice." The Monist~54 (October 1970):517—535.

Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. New York: Hafner, 1948.

Berlin, Isaiah. "Equality." In Frederick A. Olafson. ed., Justice and Social Policy. Englewood, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1961.

Bittker, Boris. The Case for Black Reparations. New York: Random House, 1973.

Blaug, Marc. Economic Theory in Retrospect. Chicago: Irwin, 1962.

Blum, Walter and Kalven, Harry, Jr. Public Law Perspectives on a Private Law Problem: Auto Compensation Plans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1965.

Blum, Walter and Kalven, Harry, Jr. The Uneasv Case for Progressive Taxation. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Bohm-Bawcrk, Eugene von. Karl Marx and the Close of His System. Clifton, N.J.: Augustus Kelley, 1949.

Bohm-Baweck, Eugene von. Capital and Interest, South Holland, 111.: Libertarian Press, 1959.

Boulding, Kenneth. Conflict and Defense, New York: Harper & Bros., 1962.

Brazen, Yale. "Is Government the Source of Monopoly?" The Intercollegiate Review 5, no. 2 (1968—1969).

Buber, Martin. Paths in Utopia. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

Calabresi, Guido and Melamed, A. Douglas. "Property Rules, Liability and Inalienability." Harvard Law Review 85, no. 6 (1972): 1989—1128.

Chomsky, Noam. "Introduction" to Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970.

Coase, Ronald. "The Nature of the Firm." In George Stigler and K. Boulding, eds., Readings in Price Theory. Chicago: Irwin, 1952.

Coase, Ronald. "The Problem of Social Costs." Journal of Law and Economics, 3 (1960): I—44.

Crow, James and Kimura, Motoo. Introduction to Population Genetics Theorv. New York: Harper & Row. 1970.

Dales, J. H. Pollution, Property and Prices. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968.

Debreu, Gerard. Theory of Value. New York: Wiley, 1959.

Debreu, Gerard and Scarf, Herbert. "A Limit Theorem on the Core of an Economy." International Economic Review, 4, no. 3 (1963).

Demsetz, Harold. "Toward a Theory of Property Rights." American Economic Review 62 (1967): 1347—59.

Deutsch, Karl and Madow, William. "Notes on the Appearance of Wisdom in Large Bureaucratic Organizations." Behavioral Science (January 1961):72—78.

Diamond, Martin. "The Federalists's View of Federalism." In Essays in Federalism, Institute for Studies in Federalism, 1961.

Feinbcrg, Joel. Doing and Deserving. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Fiacco, Anthony and McCormick, Garth, Nonlinear Programming: Sequential Unconstrained Minimization Techniques. New York: Wiley, 1968.

Fletcher, George P. "Proportionality and the Psychotic Aggressor." Israel Law Review 8, no. 3:367—90.

Fried, Charles. An Anatomy of Values. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.

Friedman, David. The Machinery of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

Gierke, Otto. Natural Law and the Theory of Society, 15001800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1934.

Ginsburg, Louis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956.

Goffman, Erving. Relations in Public. New York: Basic Books, 1971.

Goldfarb, Robert. "Pareto Optimal Redistribution: Comment." American Economic Review (December 1970):994—96.

Gray, Alexander. The Socialist Tradition. New York: Haiper Torchbooks, 1968.

Hamowy, Ronald. "Hayek's Concept of Freedom: A Critique." New Individualist Review (April 1961 ):28—31.

Hanson, Norwood Russell. Patterns of Discovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958.

Harcourt, G. С "Some Cambridge Controversies in the Theory of Capital." Journal of Economic Literature 7, no. 2 (June 1969):369—405.

Harman, Gilbert. "The Inference to the Best Explanation." The Philosophical Review 74, no. 1 (1965):88—95.

Harman, Gilbert. "Quine on Meaning and Existence." The Review of Metaphysics 21, no. 1 (1967):124—51.

Harman, Gilbert. Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Hart, Herbert L. A. "Are There Any Natural Rights?" Philosophical Review 64(1955):175—191.

Hart, Herbert L. A. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.

Hart, Herbert L. A. Punishment and Responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Hartley, L. P. Facial Justice. London: Hamilton, 1960.

Hayek, Frederick A. The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.

Hayek, Frederick A. Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Hempel, Carl G. Aspects of Scientific Explanation, New York: Free Press, 1965.

Herrnstein, Richard. I.Q. in the Meritocracy. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1973.

Hockman, H. M. and Rodgers, James D. "Pareto Optimal Redistribution." American Economic Review 49, no. 4 (September 1969):542—56.

Hospers, John. Libertarianism. Los Angeles: Nash, 1971.

Hospers, John. "Some Problems about Punishment and the Retaliatory Use of Force." Reason (November 1972) and (January 1973).

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vantage Books, 1963.

Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. Translated by H. J. Pa-ton as The Moral Law. London: Hutchinson, 1956.

Kant, Immanuel. The Metaphysical Elements of Justice. Translated by John Ladd. Indianapolis; Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.

Kessell, Reubin. "Price Discrimination in Medicine." Journal of Law and Economics l,no. 1 (October 1958):20—53.

Kim, Jaegwon. "Causation, Nomic Subsumption, and the Concept of Event." The Journal of Philosophy 70, no. 8 (April 26, 1973):217—36.

Kirzner, Israel. Market Theory and the Price System. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand, 1963.

Kirzner, Israel. Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Krader, Lawrence. Formation of the State. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

Krimmerman, Leonard and Perry, Lewis. Patterns of Anarchy. New York: Anchor Books, 1966.

Kristol, Irving. " 'When Virtue Loses All Her Loveliness'—Some Reflections on Capitalism and 'The Free Society.' " The Public Interest 17 (Fall 1970):3—15.

Leary, Timothy. The Politics of Ecstasy. New York: College Notes and Texts, 1968.

Levene, Howard. "Genetic Diversity and Diversity of Environments; Mathematical Aspects." In Lucian Le Cam and Jerzy Neyman, eds.. Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

Lewis, David. Convention, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1969.

Lewontin, R. C. "Evolution and the Theory of Games." Journal of Theoretical Biol-ogy (1960:382-403.

Lipsey, Richard and Lancaster, Kelvin. "The General Theory of Second Best." Review of Economic Studies 24 (December 1956): 11—32.

Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government. Edited by Peter Laslett. 2nd cd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Lucas, J. R. The Principles of Politics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Luce, R. D. and Krantz, David. "Conditional Expected Utility." Econometrica 39 (March 1970):253—71.

Luce, R. D. and Raiffa, Howard. Games and Decisions, New York; Wiley, 1957.

Machlup, Fritz. The Political Economy of Monopoly. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1952.

Mandel, Ernst. Marxist Economic Theory. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969.

Marcuse, Herbert. "Repressive Tolerance." In Marcuse. Herbert et al., A Critique of Pure Tolerance. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965.

Martin, James J. Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1Н27—1Ш. Dekalb, III.: Adrian Allen, 1955.

Marx, Karl. Das Capital, 1. New York: Modern Library, n.d.

Meek, R. L. Studies in the Labour Theorv of Value, London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1958.

Michelman, Frank. "Pollution as a Tort." The Yale Law Journal 80 (1971).

Minogue, Kenneth. The Liberal Mind, New York; Random House, 1963.

Mises, Ludwig von. Human Action. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1949.

Miscs, Ludwig von. Socialism. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1951.

Mises, Ludwig von. The Theory of Money and Credit. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

Mishan, E. J. "Evaluation of Life and Limb: A Theoretical Approach." Journal of Political Economy 79, no. 4 (1971):687—705.

Nagel, Ernest. The Structure of Science, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1961.

Nelson, Leonard, System of Ethics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1956.

Newman, Peter. The Theory of Exchange. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.

Nozick, Robert, "Newcomb's Problem and Two Principles of Choice." In N. Re-scher et al., eds. Essays in Honor of С G. Hempel. Holland: D. Reidel, 1969, pp. 114—46.

Nozick, Robert. "The Normative Theory of Individual Choice." Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1963.

Nozick, Robert. "Moral Complications and Moral Structures." Natural Law Forum 13(1968):!—50.

Nozick, Robert. "Coercion." In S. Morgenbesser et al., eds. Philosophy, Science

and Method. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1969, pp. 440--72. Nozick, Robert. "Weighted Voting and One-Man One-Vote." In J. R. Pennock and

R. Chapman, eds. Representation. New York: Atherton Press, 1969. Nozick, Robert. "On the Randian Argument." The Personalist 52 (Spring, 1971):

282—304.

Oppenheimer. Franz. The State. New York: Vanguard Press, 1926.

Popper, Karl. Objective Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Proudhon, P. J. General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century. London: Freedom Press, 1923.

Rand, Ayn. Atlas Shrugged. New York: Random House, 1957.

Rand, Ayn. The Virtue of Selfishness, New York: New American Library, 1965.

Rand, Ayn. Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal. New York: New American Library

1966.

Rashdall, Hastings. "The Philosophical Theory of Property." In Property, Its Duties

and Rights. London: Macmillan, 1915.

Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Belnap Press of the Harvard University Press, 1971. Roberts, Adam, ed. Civilian Resistance as a National Defense. Baltimore: Penguin

Books, 1969. Rothbard, Murray. Man, Economy and State. 2 vols. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand.

1962. Rothbard, Murray. Power and Market. Menlo Park, Cal.: Institute for Humane

Studies, 1970.

Rothbard, Murray. For a New Liberty New York: Macmillan, 1973. Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Social Contract. London: Everyman's Library, 1947. Scanlon, Thomas M. Jr. "Rawls Theory of Justice." University of Pennsylvania

Law Review 121, no, 5 (1973):1020—69.

Scarf, Herbert. "The Core of an N-person Game." Econometrics 35 (1967):50—69. Schelling, Thomas. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,

1960. Schelling, Thomas. "Models of Segregation." American Economic Review 54 (May

1969)488—493.

Schoeck, Helmut. Envy. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1966. Seligman, Martin. "Unpredictable and Uncontrollable Aversive Events." In Robert

Brash, ed. Aversive Conditioning and Learning. New York: Academic Press,

1971, pp. 347—400. Sen, Amartya K. Collective Choice and Social Welfare. San Francisco: Holden-Day,

1970.

Seuss. Dr. Thidwick, the Big-Hearted Moose. New York: Random House, 1948.

Sharp, Gene. The Politics of Non-violent Action. Boston; Porter Sargent, 1973.

Singer, I. B. In My Father s Court. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Gireaux, 1966.

Singer, Peter. "Animal Liberation." New York Review of Books (April 5,1973): 17—21. Slobodkin, Lawrence. Growth and Regulation of Animal Populations. New York: Holt,

Rinehart and Winston. 1966.

Spencer, Herbert. Social Statics, 1st ed. London: Chapman, 1851.

Spencer. Herbert. The Man Versus the State. Ohio: Caxton, 1960.

Spooner, Lysander. A Letter to Graver Cleveland on His False Inaugural Address: The Usurpation and Crimes of lawmakers and Judges, and the Consequent Poverty, Ignorance, and Servitude of the People. Boston: Benjamin R. Tucker, 1886.

Spooner, Lysander. Natural Law. Boston: Williams, 1882.

Spooner, Lysander. No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority. Larkspur, Col.: Pine Tree Press, 1966.

Spooner, Lysander, The Collected Works of Lysander Spooner. Weston, Mass,: M andS Press, 1971.

Sweezy, Paul. Theory of Capitalist Development. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1956.

Talmon. J. L. The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1952.

Talmon, J. L. Political Messianism. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1960.

Tandy, Francis. Voluntary Socialism. Denver: F. D. Tandy, 1896.

Tannehill, Morris and Tannehill, Linda. The Market for Liberty. New York: Arno Press, 1972.

Tawney, R. H. Equality. London: Allen and Unwin, 1938.

Thomson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion," Philosophy and Public Affairs 1, no. 2 (Fall, 1971):47—66.

Tribe, Laurence. "Trial by Mathematics." Harvard Law Review 84 (1971): 1329—93.

Trotsky, Leon. Literature and Revolution. New York: Russell and Russell, n.d.

Tucker. Benjamin. Instead of a Book. New York, 1893.

Tucker, Benjamin. Individual Liberty. New York: Vangard Press, 1926.

Vlastos, Gregory. Platonic Studies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.

Vonncgut. Kurt. Welcome to the Monkey House. New York: Dell, 1970.

Weber, Max. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Glencoe, 111.: Free Press, 1947.

Weber, Max. Max Weber on Law in Economy and Society. Edited by M. Rheinstein. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954.

Williams, Bernard. "The Idea of Equality." In Peter Laslett and W. G. Runciman, eds. Philosophy, Politics and Society. 2nd series. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1962.

Wohlstettcr, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1962.

Wolff, Robert Paul. "A Refutation of Rawls' Theorem on Justice." Journal of Philosophy 63. no. 7 (March 31, 1966).

Zablocki, Benjamin. The Joyful Community. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1971.




©2015 studenchik.ru Все права принадлежат авторам размещенных материалов.